Complete IELTS Writing

概要

かかった時間

  • 読むので 15 時間弱

  • 覚えるのは別

進め方

  • 使えそうな表現は Anki に追加して、覚えながらやってる

感想

  • 形式をよく理解できた

  • general についての本が少ないので、良い教材だと思う

  • ただし、この本だけではできるようにならないので、めっちゃ練習するのが大事そう

読書メモ

1: Introduction to the IELTS Writing test

  • 形式

    • General の Task1 は最低 150 語で手紙を書く

      • Academic だと report を書く

    • Task2 は最低 250 語でどちらも essay を書く

  • 3 つのよくある間違い

    • 1: poor time management

    • 2: rushing to start the task without properly reading the question

      • トピックから外れたことを書いてしまう

    • 3: frequency of errors

      • 時間をかけて校正するの大事

  • How to Improve

    • Learn how the test is structured and graded

    • Learn skills to improve your answers

    • Practice skills

    • Do lots of practice tests

    • Receive feedback on practice tests

    • Use the feedback to improve your answers

2: Task1 Academic Reports

  • Academic 用なので省略

3: Task1 General: Letters

3.1: Overview

  • 最低 150 語、だいたい 20 分で書く

  • task introduction や requirements も与えられる

  • 例: You travelled by long distance bus recently and your suitcase was damaged. Write a letter to the bus company. In your letter

    • inform the bus company of when and to where you travelled

    • describe your suitcase and what happened to it

    • explain why the company should pay for a new suitcase

  • Grading criteria

    • Task Achievement

    • Coherenece and Cohesion

    • Lexical Resource(Vocabulary)

    • Grammatical Range and Accuracy

  • 効率よく書くための手順

    • 1: Read the question

    • 2: Underline key words

    • 3: Brainstorm how you will answer the task

      • 3 つの bullet points に答えるために考える

    • 4: Write the letter

    • 5: Proofread your letter

3.2: Parts of letters

  • 手紙には 6 パートある

    • Greeting

    • Opening of the letter

    • Body of the letter

    • Closing of the letter

    • Farewell

    • Your name

  • Greeting: Dear Marie, Dear Ms. Smith, Dear Sir or Madam, など

    • 友達や家族に対しては first name を使う

    • formal な場合(上司に対してなど)は last name を使う

    • Dear Sir or Madam は知らない相手に送る場合に使う

  • Opening of the letter: It was great to see you last weekend; I am writing with regard to ... など

    • formal な場合は直接要件に入り、personal な場合は warm comment で始めた後、手紙の要件に入る

    • formal letter の場合の例

      • I am writing with regard to ...

      • I am writing to inquire about ...

    • informal letter の場合の例

      • I hope you are enjoying your new home. Anyway, the reason I'm writing to you is because I have some good news to share with you...

  • Body of the letter

    • 3 つの bulleted points に答えるように書く

    • 1 つ目のポイントは、opening of the letter と同じパラグラフに出る

    • 各パラグラフは topic sentence で始まり、メインのポイントを紹介する

      • この topic sentence は bullted point の 1 つに対応する

    • topic sentence の例

      • With regard to ...

      • As for ...

      • I would also like to mention ...

  • Closing of the letter

    • 友達や家族の場合は warm comment で締める

    • formal な場合、以下のように締める

      • I appreciate your time and attention to this matter.

  • Farewell: Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely, Best regards, など

    • formal(会ったことない人)

      • Yours faithfully, の後にフルネーム

    • formal(会ったことある人)

      • Yours sincerely, の後にフルネーム

    • semi-formal(よく知っている人)

      • Best regards, の後に first name

  • Your name: Mike; Mike Wattie など

    • 友達や家族なら first name

    • formal なら first and last name

      • 友達の場合でもフルネーム書いてよい

3.3: Types of letters

  • Formality of letters

    • 手紙の audience と purpose によって style を決定する

    • formal letters

      • ビジネスの知り合いや、知らない人に送る場合

    • semi-formal letters

      • 知人や友人、家族に送る場合

      • ビジネスの手紙と比べると friendlier にする

    • informal letters

      • このタイプは IELTS のテストでは書かない

      • スラングや省略を使う

  • Purposes of letters

    • IELTS では以下のタイプの手紙を書くことになる

      • Requesting information

      • Giving information

      • Making a complaint

      • Making an apology

      • Thanking someone

3.4: Requesting information

  • polite tone で書く

例題
You are planning to spend a weekend at a hotel with your family.
Write a letter to the hotel making the arrangements.
Ask them the following
- when you want to arrive and leave
- what type of rooms you would like and ask how much they will cost
- you are interested to know about activities and places of interest near the hotel
  • 使える表現

    • To begin letters

      • I am writing to ask if you would be so generous as to ...

      • I am writing to request your kind permission for ...

      • I wonder if I might ask you for your valuable advice concerning ...

    • Phrases to make requests

      • Could you also provide details of ...

      • I would also like to know ...

      • In addition, could you tell me ...

    • To end letters

      • I hope that my request will not inconvenience you too much.

      • I appreciate your time and attention to this matter.

      • Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.

解答例
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to ask if you would be so kind as to give me some details about your hotel's accomodation.
I would like to book accomodation for my family and I from the 11th of March until the 15th. On the 11th I would like to arrive late in the afternoon, and on the 15th, if possible, I would like to have a late check-out at about 4 pm.
As we are two adults and a child, I would like to book a one-bedroom suite, if possible. I would also prefer a non-smoking room as my daughter has allergies. Please, let me know how much it would be for the entire length of our stay and also whether the price includes anything extra like breakfast.
I would also appreciate any information you can offer about places for sightseeing and leisure activities as we will be spending a few days in the town nearby.
Thank you in advance for your kind cooperation.
Yours faithfully,
Mike Wattie

3.5: Giving information

  • どの情報を与えるか正確に特定することが大切

例題
You recently subscribed to a new magazine. A representative of the magazine has asked you to give some feedback on their magazine. Write a letter to the representative of the magazine that includes the following information:
- details of why you bought the magazine
- what you liked about the latest edition
- any improvements you would recommend
  • 使える表現

    • To begin letters

      • I am writing in response to your enquiry about ...

      • I am writing with regard to ...

      • I am writing to advise you that ...

    • To end letters

      • I hope that this information will be of some assistance.

      • Please do not hesitate to contact me if you have any further questions.

      • Do not hesitate to contact me should you require further assistance.

    • Other useful phrases

      • Please find enclosed a ...

      • May I bring to your attention ...

      • The following information may be of use to you ...

      • I would also like to draw to your attention ...

解答例
Dear Mrs. Brown,
The purpose of this letter is to express my opinion about your magazine. I believe it is a wonderful idea to ask for the thoughts of your readers about your recently released publication.
I purchased the magazine because it includes topics that relate to my hobby of bird watching. I often seek out new places to visit to take photos of birds and your magazine seems to provide lots of good recommendations.
What I loved the most about your current issue was the article describing places to go bird watching in local national parks. I especially like the way you covered the latest developments in the parks that support birdwatchers. Moreover, I felt attracted by the images portrayed on the cover page.
I would like to suggest you to continue producing material which is useful and enjoyable to read. Also, I suggest that you make the magazine more concise and with fewer images so it is lighter and even more appealing.
I hope you find my comments and recommendations helpful.
Yours sincerely,
Mike Wattie

3.6: Making a complaint

例題
Write a letter of complaint to a store where you purchased a faulty new refrigerator. In your letter explain the following:
- where and when you purchased the refrigerator
- what is wrong with it
- what action you would like the store to take
  • 使える表現

    • To begin letters

      • I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with ...

      • I regret to inform you how disappointed I was with ...

      • I am writing to draw your attention to the problem of ...

    • Politely making a complaint

      • I would like to draw your attention ...

      • I would like to respectfully point out that ...

      • In order to rectify the situation I will ...

    • Politely asking for action to be taken ...

      • Due to the discomfort and inconvenience we respectfully request compensation for ...

      • I believe the best way to rectify the situation is ...

      • Could you please put this right by ...

    • To end letters

      • I hope this matter will be resolved as soon as possible.

      • I hope this matter will receive your immediate attention.

      • I would like to request full compensation for ...

解答例
Dear Sir/Madam,
I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with a product I purchased recently from one of your stores.
I recently bought a Samsung self-defrosting refrigerator from your store on Grote St. in Adelaide. I paid cash for it and it was delivered to my house on the 11th of June. The model number is G11412, and it is shown on page 27 of your spring catalogue.
There is a problem with the defrosting system of the refrigerator. Every time, the refrigerator defrosts itself, a puddle of water forms on the floor in front of it. This is both a nuisance and a danger as someone may slip and fall.
I hope this matter will receive your immediate attention. Please contact me during the day on my mobile 094-980-2675 to arrange a time for a repair man to fix the defrost system.
Thank you in advance for your help in straightening out this matter.
Yours faithfully,
Mike Wattie

3.7: Making an apology

例題
Recently you had a party at your house. There was a lot of noise late at night and you disturbed your next door neighbour. Write a letter to your neighbour. In your letter:
- explain the reasons for the noise
- apologise
- describe what action you will take to prevent it from happening again
  • 使える表現

    • To begin letters

      • I am writing to sincerely apologise for ...

      • Please accept my profuse apologies for ...

      • I would like to apologise for ...

    • Expressing regret

      • Please accept my apology for ...

      • I am sorry that I am unable to ...

      • Regrettably, I cannot ...

    • Making amends

      • Please allow me to offer compensation for ...

      • I insist on making up for your inconvenience by ...

    • To end letters

      • Once again, my apologies for the inconvenience caused.

      • I hope that you will accept my apologies.

      • I hope that you can overlook this regrettable error.

解答例
Dear Mr and Mrs Smith,
I am writing to sincerely apologise for the disturbance caused during my birthday party last Saturday night.
I was celebrating my 25th birthday with my friends and approximately two hours after the party started, two people, who were friends of a friend, started arguing about an issue that is still unknown to me. Initially, it was just a discussion, but then it became a fight and I was forced to call the police.
I deeply regret having interrupted your sleep. Please accept my most sincere apologies. The situation got out of control and noise at that point was inevitable. However, I understand that we all enjoy living in a peaceful neighbourhood and whatever happened at my party should not have disturbed you.
I will refrain from holding parties in my unit in the future in order to avoid further problematic events in our residental area.
Once again, my apologies for the inconvenience caused.
Kind regards,
Mike Wattie

3.8: Thanking someone

例題
A friend from overseas recently sent you a gift in the mail. Write a letter to your friend to thnak him/her. In your letter:
- say how you felt when you received the present
- describe what you like about it
- explain how you will use the present
  • 使える表現

    • To begin letters

      • I am writing to thank you for ...

      • I am writing to express my gratitude for ...

      • I would like to tell how cheerful I felt when ...

    • Giving thanks

      • I am indeed indebted to you for ...

      • I very much appreciated your ...

      • I am extremely grateful to you for ...

    • To end letters

      • Once again thank you for ...

      • Once again I really appreciated the ...

      • I would like to once again express my gratitude for ...

解答例
Dear Peter,
It seems like ages since we were together at university. I am writing to express my gratitude for remembering my birthday.
I felt really excited when I found a parcel from you in my letter box. I was really touched that you have still kept in touch and what's more, you remembered my birthdday. It really makes me feel we have a close and special friendship despite the physical distance between us.
When I opened up the box and I found that you had sent a bottle of my favourite maple syrup I was really happy. As you know I just love that sweet syrup and I also liked the oak casket that it was packaged in.
Every Sunday, I am going to pour some of the syrup over my pancakes. I might also make some of those maple syrup toffees I used to make when we were flatmates.
Once again I really appreciated you remembering my birthday.
Cheers,
Mike

3.9: Useful language for letters

  • To introduce new points

    • With regard to ...

    • As far as ... is concerned ...

    • I would also like to mention ...

  • To emphasize what you are saying

    • Clearly,

    • Obviously,

    • Needless to say,

  • Satisfaction

    • I thoroughly enjoyed ...

    • I was thrilled about/by ...

    • ... was extraordinary

  • Dissatisfaction

    • I am discontent about/with ...

    • I am not satisfied about/with ...

    • ... is not what I expected ...

    • ... does not fulfil my needs ...

    • ... is too + [adjective]

  • Regret / apology

    • I regret that I ...

    • Please accept my apology for ...

    • I am sorry that I am unable to ...

    • Please forgive me for ...

    • Regrettably, I cannot ...

    • Making a request

    • I would be grateful if ...

    • What I am looking for is ...

    • I am very keen to ...

    • I would be indebted to you if you could ...

  • Giving thanks

    • I am indeed indebted to you for ...

    • I very much appreciated your ...

    • I am extremely grateful to you for ...

3.10: Common errors

  • Task achievement

    • Poor time management

      • フレーズをしっかり覚えておくと、時間が足りなくなりそうな時に素早くミスなく書ける

    • Not responding to all parts of the task

      • 3 つの bullet point にちゃんと答えること

    • Not responding to all parts of the bullet point

      • 各 bullet point でたまに 2 つ以上のことが要求される場合もある。こういう時に全てに対してちゃんと答えること

      • 例: when you want to arrive and leave

    • Not giving a balanced answer to all three questions

      • 各ポイントを 1 つのパラグラフにし、それぞれの大体の大きさをそろえる

    • Inappropriate tone

      • 良くない例

        • Too aggressive a tone in a letter of complaint

          • NG: If you do not solve this immediately I will call my lawyer and sue you in court.

          • OK: I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.

    • Errors with the letter format

      • 手紙なので、名前は body ではなく最後に書く

  • Cohesion and coherence

    • Not clearly answering a question in one place

      • ポイントごとにパラグラフを作ると良い

    • Poor topic sentence

      • ポイントの質問に対する答えから、パラグラフを始める

  • Vocabulary

    • "S" endings of words

      • 単数 / 複数形に注意

    • Other errors with word endings and form

      • "ed" のあるなし

      • 名詞か動詞か

    • Repeating words excessively

      • 語彙の広さを見せるために、同じ言葉を繰り返すのではなく rephrase したほうがよい

    • Colloquial expressions

      • 文章で使わない口語は避ける

    • Cliches

      • 使われすぎている表現は ugly と捉えられる

        • At this poit in time ...

        • At the end of the day ...

        • Just like every coin has two sides ...

  • Grammar

    • Articles(冠詞)

      • a / an / the に注意

    • Avoid using repetitive sentence structure

      • I am の連続など

    • Avoid writing short simple sentences

    • He or she

      • 複数形を使えば、この he or she を避けられる

    • Prepositions(前置詞)

4: Task2 Essay Writing

4.1: Overview

  • 最低 250 語、だいたい 40 分で書く

例題
Write about the following topic:
Some people believe that the fast pace and stress of modern life is having a negative effect on families. Do you agree or disagree?
  • 3 つのタイプがある

    • opinion

      • Requirements

        • What is your opinion and why?

        • Computers are being used more and more in education and some say there will soon be no role for the teacher in education. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

    • both sides + opinion

      • Requirements

        • Discuss two aspects equally of this argument and then give your own opinion.

        • Computers are being used more and more in education. Some people say that this is a positive trend, while others argue that it is leading to negative consequences. Discuss both of this argument and then give your own opinion.

    • two question essay

      • Requirements

        • Discuss two questions equally.

        • Computers are being used more and more in education. What are some of the problems it causes? What are some of the possible solutions?

  • Structuring the three types of essay(p120 に表あり)

    • Opinion

      • Introduction

        • Rephrase question

        • opinion = (how much) reasons

        • "I totally agree because ..."

      • Body

        • reason 1

        • reason 2

        • reason 3 / concession

      • Final paragraph

        • Restating of your opinion + summary of reasons

    • Both sides + opinion

      • Introduction

        • Rephrase question

        • "This essay discusses ..." + [both sides] and [opinion]

      • Body

        • Side 1 advantages

        • Side 2 advantages

        • opinion は body の外に出す

      • Final paragraph

        • Your opinion

        • State that both sides are important/have merits

        • State which one is more important/better

    • Two question Essay

      • Introduction

        • Rephrase question

        • "This essay discusses ..." + [question 1] and [question 2]

      • Body

        • question 1

        • question 2

      • Final paragraph

        • Summary of question 1 and 2

4.2: Opinion essay

例題
Some people believe that the fast pace and stress of modern life is having a negative effect on families.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?
  • Task Analysis

    • すべての task には topic と question が含まれている

    • その両方について、ちゃんと答えることが必要

    • 例題の topic

      • fast pace and stress と書かれているので、両方に答えることが必要

    • 例題の question

      • まず agree なのか disagree なのか答える必要があり、さらに what extent do you 〜 なので、どの程度、賛成または反対なのか答える必要がある

    • extent の記述がなくても、どの程度か記述するのはいいやり方

    • 100% の場合

      • totally / completely

    • 全てではない場合

      • somewhat / partly

    • 50-50 は不明瞭になるので、やめたほうがいい

  • Planning your essay

    • 1: Underline key vocabulary in the topic and write words with the same or related meaning

    • 2: Decide what kind of response is needed.

    • 3: Brainstorm key points for the answer

    • 4: Decide on your position(totally agree / somewhat agree / somewhat disagree / totally disagree)

      • 書きやすいのを選べば良い

    • 5: Decide on the structure of the essay

      • 強いものから順に書く

  • Steps in writing your essay

    • Introduction

      • 1: Paraphrase the question

        • 例えば名詞を動詞にする

      • 2: State your position [totally / strongly / somewhat + agree / disagree]

        • 6 か 7 のスコアでいいならシンプルに主張を述べるだけでいいが、8 を狙うなら主張に加えて、理由も書いたほうがいい

    • Body

      • 2 つか 3 つのパラグラフを書いて、それぞれで 1 つの理由を主張する

        • 2 つの場合はより詳細に書く場合、3 つの場合は 1 つ 1 つは薄くなるが、問題と自分の意見によって柔軟に変えてよい

        • somewhat agree の場合に 2 つ賛成意見、1 つ反対意見を述べるなど

      • 1: Write topic sentences for each body paragraph

        • Sequencing word + topic + reason の形がいい

        • 例: The main reason why I believe family life is being compromised is because families have less time to be with each other.

      • 2: Write supporting sentences for the topic sentences

        • key point を作る 3 つのやり方

          • explanation / example / adding details

    • Conclusion

      • 1: Send a signal you are concluding your essay

        • in conclusion はどんな場合でも使いやすい

      • 2: Restate your position

      • 3: Summarise the main points

        • 理想的には body で使った言葉と違う言葉を使うほうがいい

      • 4: Give your final opinion or recommendation / restate your position

        • 時間があるなら final opinion か recommendation を書けると 8 や 9 のスコアが狙える

解答例 1: somewhat agree の場合
Many people feel that family life is being harmed by the high-speed and pressure of contemporary lifestyles. *I somewhat agree with this opinion* because the fast pace leads to less time for families to be together, and stress leads to arguments among family members; however, due to the increased time pressure and stress families are forced to cooperate more, which brings them closer together.
*The main reason why I believe* family life is being compromised is because families have less time to be with each other. As individual family members are busier at work and with their social lives, they have less time to spend with their family. As well as this, people have many things they have to do these days such as checking e-mail, updating their online social status and so less time is left for family life. To illustrate, I spend about two hours online every night attending to daily correspondence before chatting with my family members.
*In addition,* the pressure of life these days means that even when families do get together arguments are more likely. This is because everyone feels tired and they are more likely to get irritated and to react to their heightened emotional levels.
*However,* it does seem reasonable that this pressure may also lead to positive outcomes in some families. One such possibility is that family members will cooperate more in order to overcome time limitations. For instance, they may share household chores, so that everybody has time to relax afterwards.
*In conclusion,* *I somewhat believe* that the rapid pace and stressful nature of contemporary lifestyles are having negative consequences on family relationships. This is because family members have less time, and when they are together they feel less relaxed. However, I admit that sometimes adversity can bring people closer together. Given this situation, it seems that family members should try to be more supportive to one another and also parents need to set aside regular times for families to relax together.
[350 words]
  • Template for opinion essay

    • Introduction

      • There is currently a contentious argument over whether XYZ

      • I totally agree/disagree with this opinion because [reason 1 + reason 2]

    • Paragraph 2

      • The main reason why I believe / don't believe XYZ is because ... [reason 1]

    • Paragraph 3

      • Another reason why I support / don't support the notion that XYZ is due to the fact that ... [reason 2]

    • Conclusion

      • In conclusion, I completely agree/disagree that XYZ because [rephrase reason 1] and [rephrase reason 2].

      • Given this situation, it seems that [give a final recommendation or opinion]

解答例 2: totally agree の場合
*There is currently a contentious argument over whether* family life is being harmed by the high-speed and pressure of contemporary lifestyles. *I totally agree with this opinion because* the fast pace leads to less time for families to be together, and stress leads to arguments among family members.
*The main reason why I believe* family life is being compromised is because families have less time to be with each other. This is due to family members being busier at work and with their social lives. As well as this, people have many things they have to do these days such as checking e-mail, updating their online social status and so less time is left for family life. To illustrate, I spend about two hours online every night attending to daily correspondence before chatting with my family members, whereas ten years ago I would spend time with my family as soon as I walked in the door.
*Another reason why I supported the notion that* families are being impacted negatively is that the pressure of life these days mean that even when families do get together arguments are more likely. This is because everyone feels tired and they are more likely to get irritated and to react to their heightened emotional levels.
*In conclusion, I completely agree that* the rapid pace and stressful nature of contemporary lifestyles are having negative consequences on family relationships. This is because family members have less time, and when they are together they feel less relaxed. *Given this situation, it seems that* family members should try to be more supportive to one another and also parents need to set aside regular times for families to relax together.
[281 words]
  • outweigh の場合

    • both sides について述べたほうがよい

    • 他の opinion essay と同様に、どちらが勝っているか introduction と conclusion で述べる

    • conclusion の最後には recommendation を述べる

解答例 3: outweigh の場合
例題
Many people believe that the government should encourage industries and business to move from large cities to the countryside.
Do you think that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages?
解答
Nowadays, there is a contentious issue regarding whether the authorities should provide incentives for factories and other companies to relocate from metropolitan areas to rural sites. In my opinion, the merits outweigh the drawbacks.
There are *considerable benefits* to locating companies in regional areas. For businesses themselves, they can have a significant decline in costs, such as the leases on premises, which are usually dramatically higher in the big cities. It is also likely to benefit rural communities by boosting their economies and providing job opportunities in the neighbourhood and preventing the need for them to make a long commute to work in the city. Finally, by locating businesses in remote areas it can benefit cities by reducing overcrowding, traffic congestion, and pollution levels.
However, there are *potential drawbacks* to companies and businesses moving their premises outside metropolises. The main issue is that companies located in regional areas may be further away from their employees. This can make it more difficult to find labour to work in the company. As well as this, the companies may be located further away from their customers, which might weaken their relationships with their customers.
In conclusion, the merits to businesses relocating in more remote areas seem to outweigh the drawbacks as it can benefit the companies themselves, the local communities, and also the metropolitan areas. However, companies may face challenges to find labour and maintain close relationships with their customres. Given this situation, it seems that the government should offer incentives to encourage companies to relocate to the countryside.
[256 words]
  • Common Mistakes

    • Unclear opinion

      • extent を書いていない場合など

    • Choosing the wrong side to argue

      • 書きやすい方を選んで書けば良い

    • Contradicting your opinion

4.3: Both sides and opinion essay

例題
Some people think that the education system should only focus on preparing students for employment, while others believe it has other important functions.
Discuss both sides and then give your own opinion.
  • Task analysis

    • このタイプの topic は 2 つの視点を説明しているので、それぞれが何か正確に把握する

    • 両方の視点について議論した後、自分の意見も記載する

  • Planning your essay

    • 1: Underline key vocabulary in the topic and write words with the same or related meaning

    • 2: Decide what kind of response is needed

    • 3: Brainstorm key points for the answer

    • 4: Decide on the structure of the essay

      • 例題の場合だと、Paragraph1: Introduction / Paragraph2: A についての議論 / Paragraph3: B についての議論 / Paragraph4: Conclusion

  • Steps in writing your essay

    • Introduction

      • 1: Paraphrase the question

      • 2: Say what the essay is about

        • 以下の両方の表現はこのタイプの質問ならいつでも使える

        • This essay discusses both sides of this argument, and then I will give my own perspective.

        • The purpose of this essay is to analyse both sides of this argument and then I will explain why I believe the view that schools should have other functions is stronger.

    • Body

      • introduction の後、2 つの body paragraph が必要

      • 各サイドについて 1 つ paragraph を使う

      • body の構造のイメージ

        • 1: topic sentence

        • 2: 1st main point

        • 3: explain the main point

        • 4: 例で main point を説明

        • 5: 2nd main point

        • 6: explain or give an example to illustrate the 2nd main point

      • 1: Write topic sentences for each body paragraph

      • 2: Write supporting sentences for the topic sentences

        • explanation / adding details / example を使って説明する

    • Conclusion

      • 基本的な構造

        • 1: Signal that this is the concluding paragraph with the phrase: In conclusion,

        • 2: State that both sides of the argument have merits.

        • 3: Say which side you support more strongly.

        • 4: Give a justification for supporting this side more strongly.

解答例1
Many people feel that getting pupils ready for their careers should be the main focus of schools, whereas others believe that schools should have additional purposes. The purpose of this essay is to analyse both sides of this argument and then I will explain why I believe the view that schools should have other functions is stronger.
There are merits of schools only focusing on preparing young people for their working lives. If young people are better prepared for their careers, they will be more successful in their working lives. As well as this, they will also make more money and be able to support themselves better. To illustrate, some recent stories in the media highlighted that students who finish high school are less likely to be unemployed, and more likely to earn higher salaries. In addition, by schools preparing young people for jobs, there will be a better-prepared workforce. This benefits society by raising productivity and ensuring that employers have the necessary labour they need.
However, there are also advantages of schools having other functions. First of all, they should teach students skills to make them well-rounded. By teaching communication skills and how to use technology, the students will be better-rounded individuals. Clearly, these are important skills in today's society and so they should be learnt at school. As well as this, schools should teach morals and ethics because this will make the society better. Many people feel that this aspect of schooling has become neglected, and has led to a deterioration of society.
In conclusion, *I believe* both sides of the argument have their merits. On balance, however, it seems that schools should have other functions. This is because if the student are well rounded, they will be more successful in their lives and contribute more to society.
  • Template for a both sides and opinion essay

A highly controversial issue today relates to whether to have ...[issue]... or not. In this essay, I am going to examine this question from both points of view and then give my own opinion on the matter.
There are people who argue that the benifits of ... considerably outweigh its disadvantages. The main reason for believing this is that ... . It is also possible to say that ... . One good illustration of this is ... .
On the other hand, it is also possible to make the opposing case. It is often argued that ... . People often have this opinion because ... . A second point is that ... . A particularly good example here is ... .
In conclusion, I believe both arguments have their merits. On balance, however, I feel that ... . This is because ... .
解答例 2: テンプレートを使った場合
例題
Some people believe that there should be the death penalty for extremely serious crimes. Other believe that it is not morally correct to kill criminals.
Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.
解答
A highly controversial issue today relates to whether to have *capital punishment* or not. In this essay, I am going to examine this question from both points of view and then give my own opinion on the matter.
There are people who argue that the benifits of *killing violent criminals* considerably outweigh its disadvantages. The main reason for believing this is that *the fear of execution acts as a deterrent to commit serious crimes such as rape and murder*. It is also possible to say that *the execution of a criminal may bring relief to the suffering victims*. One good illustration of this is *when Saddam Hussein was executed. Many of the victims who were persecuted under his rule expressed joy and relief when he was finally captured and killed*.
On the other hand, it is also possible to make the opposing case. It is often argued that *sentencing criminals to death is just committing another murder*. People often have this opinion because *they think that it is immoral to take another person's life, no matter what the reason is*. A second point is that *many religions are opposed to any form of murder*. A particularly good example here is *from the bible, which lists killing another person as one of the Ten Commandments that should not be broken*.
In conclusion, I believe both arguments have their merits. On balance, however, I feel that *capital punishment is justified*. This is because *in cases of extreme crime and that deterring crime is more important than taking the moral high ground*.
  • More Sample Question

    • Situation 1: discuss the advantages and disadvantages of one thing

    • Situation 2: discuss the advantages of two different things

  • Common mistakes

    • Putting your opinion in the introduction of the essay

      • 最後の paragraph までは自分の意見を書かないほうがよい

    • Putting your opinion in the body of the essay

      • 上と同様、body にも書かない

    • Not writing enough for your opinion

      • 意見を 1 行で述べるだけでなく、理由も書く

4.4: Two question essay

例題
Some people think that in the future lots of changes will occur that will improve our society.
Do you agree or disagree?
What kind of changes will occur?
  • Task analysis

    • topic と 2 つの question を正しく理解する

  • Planning the essay

    • 1: Underline key vocabulary in the topic and write words with the same or related meaning

    • 2: Decide what kind of response is needed

    • 3: Brainstorm key points for the answer

    • 4: Decide on the structure of the essay

      • introduction / question 1 / question 2 / conclusion

  • Steps in writing your essay

    • Introduction

      • 1: Paraphrase the question

      • 2: Say what the essay is about

        • This essay discusses は使える

    • Body

      • introduction の後、2 つの body paragraph が必要

      • 各質問について 1 つ paragraph を使う

      • body の構造のイメージ

        • 1: topic sentence

        • 2: main point の紹介

        • 3: main point の説明

        • 4: 例で main point を説明

        • 5: minor point

        • 6: explain or give an example to illustrate the minor point

      • 1: Write topic sentences for each body paragraph

      • 2: Write supporting sentences for the topic sentences

        • explanation / adding details / example を使って説明する

    • Conclusion

      • 基本的な構造

        • 1: Signal that this is the concluding paragraph with the phrase: In conclusion,

        • 2: Summarise your main points for each question.

        • 3: Give a final opinion or recommendation based on the summary.

解答例 1
例題
In the future many change will occur and many people that will improve our society.
Do you agree or disagree?
What kind of changes will occur?
解答
As a result of developments that are taking place, many people believe that life will become better. This essay discusses the reasons why the changes that are coming are positive, and also suggests what kind of changes will occur.
The changes that are coming are positive for two main reasons. The main reason is that they will make our lives more convenient. We are likely to have more free time as a result of technology taking over many of our everyday tasks. For example, we may have robots capable of doing many household chores, and this will enable us to have more free time for enjoyment and relaxation. Another factor is that our recreational time will be enhanced by new technologies that make our entertainment even more fun. If we enjoy ourselves more we will be happier and more relaxed.
There are two main types of developments that are likely to occur. The first of these is time-saving technologies. Future enhancements of robotics are likely to lead to even more household tasks being performed by machines. As well as this, the entertainment industry looks likely to soon make enhancements to our recrational experiences by making new technologies available. A good example of this is 3-D television, which will make watching movies more fun.
In conclusion, the future looks promising because we will have technology takeover many of life's mundane tasks and we'll have better forms of entertainment. The most likely changes appear to be technologies to save us time and also enhance our leisure time. This means that we are likely to have more time for relaxation and better ways to spend it.
  • Template for a two question essay

    • このタイプはテンプレートを標準化するのが難しい

    • Introduction

      • Rephrase the topic

      • this essay discusses ... [question 1] + [question 2]

    • Body

      • Question 1 [try to write 2 main points to respond to this question]

      • Question 2 [try to write 2 main points to respond to this question]

    • Conclusion

      • In conclusion,

      • [summarise the 2 main points about question 1]

      • [summarise the 2 main points about question 2]

... is becoming increasingly serious in many nations. Although ... threaten[s] many societies, its/their effects can also be combated successfully. This essay looks at some of the problems caused by ... on society, and suggests some solutions to the problems.
... causes multiple problems. The ... effects are very obvious. For example, ... . In some cases, such as ... even leads to (death). The second effect is ... . People who ... become ... .
However, the menace of ... can be fought. Education is the main way to tackle this issue. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can avoid this problem. In addition, the government could also ... . This is a good approach because ... .
In conclusion, ... is a serious issue because it causes harmful effects on people's health and people who are ... . The best approaches to deal with it are to educate people about its damaging effects, and also for the government to ... . Although the problem is unlikely to be entirely eliminated in the short term there are concrete steps to reduce the effects it is having on the current society.
[175 words]
解答例 2: テンプレートを使った場合
例題
The use of illegal drugs, such as heroin and cocaine, are becoming more and more common in many countries.
What are some of the problems associated with drug abuse, and what are some of the possible solutions?
解答
*Drug abuse* is becoming increasingly serious in many nations. Although *drugs* threaten[s] many societies, its/their effects can also be combated successfully. This essay looks at some of the problems caused by *drug use* on society, and suggests some solutions to the problems.
*Drug abuse* causes multiple problems for countries and communities. The *medical* effects are very obvious. For example, *addicts abuse their bodies and neglect their health, and so eventually require expensive treatment or hospitalization*. In some cases, such as *Marilyn Monroe*, a *drug overdose* even leads to *death*. The second effect is *crime*. People who *take drugs* become *crazy and irrational and often cause harm and danger to themselves and others*.
However, the menace of *drugs* can be fought. Education is the main way to tackle this issue. People need to be aware of the effects so that they can avoid this problem. In addition, the government could also *use infomercials to educate their citizens*. This is a good approach because *they can alert all citizens about the negative aspects of using drugs*.
In conclusion, *drug abuse* is a serious issue because it causes harmful effects on people's health and people who are *high often commit crimes*. The best approaches to deal with it are to educate people about its damaging effects, and also for the government *to ensure all people are aware of the consequences through public service advertising*. Although the problem is unlikely to be entirely eliminated in the short term there are concrete steps to reduce the effects it is having on the current society.
  • Common mistakes

    • Not responding fully to both questions

    • Not introducing BOTH questions in the introduction

      • introduction の中で両方の質問について触れること

4.5: Improving your score

  • Common mistakes with task response

    • Poor time management

    • Not responding to all parts of the task

    • Misstating the topic

      • introduction の時点で一般化しすぎたり、具体化しすぎたり、違うポイントから話したりしないこと

    • Not fully answering the question

    • Misstating the question

    • Over-generalisation

  • Improving task response

    • Read the task carefully

    • Planning

      • 少なくとも 5 分はかける

    • Developing strong main ideas

      • サンプル問題をたくさん解いて練習する

    • Developing your ideas well

      • main idea をうまくサポートできるように練習する

    • Use an appropriate structure

  • Common errors with cohesion and coherence

    • Avoid basic sequencing words

      • firstly / secondly などは避ける。代わりに The main benefit is that や As well as this, を使う

    • Avoid unnecessary sentence elements

    • Incorrect use of conjunctions

      • for / and / nor / but / or / yet / so の FANBOYS を正しく使う

    • Not using an appropriate structure for the question type

    • Avoid irrelevant sentences

    • Improving cohesion and coherence

      • 書く前にプランを立てる

      • Use sequencing words and connecting phrases

      • Avoid errors with word choices

      • Avoid unnecessarily complicated structures and grammar

      • Learn how to develop your ideas in paragraphs

        • explanation / adding details / example を使って説明する

  • Common errors with vocabulary

    • "S" endings of words

      • 単数 / 複数形に注意

    • Other errors with word endings and form

      • "ed" のあるなし

      • 名詞か動詞か

    • Repeating words excessively

      • 語彙の広さを見せるために、同じ言葉を繰り返すのではなく rephrase したほうがよい

    • Noun trains

      • "application of pesticides" のほうが "pesticides application" よりわかりやすい

    • Obvious memorised language that is inappropriately applied

      • 覚えたフレーズを不適切に使わないよう注意

    • Colloquial expressions

      • 文章で使わない口語は避ける

    • Cliches

      • 使われすぎている表現は ugly と捉えられる

  • Improving vocabulary

    • Rephrase the task

      • rephrase の練習する

    • Use high-level words where possible

      • language test でもあることを意識する

  • Common errors with grammar

    • 冠詞

    • Avoid writing short simple sentences

    • He or she

      • 複数形を使えば、この he or she を避けられる

4.6: Improving grammar

  • Criteria for grammar

    • uses a variety of complex structures

    • produces frequent error-free sentences

    • has good control of grammar and punctuation but may make a few errors

  • Develop ways of writing complex sentences

    • 仮定法や関係詞節を使うと良い

    • Conditional sentences(仮定法)

      • 上手く使えると grammar score を上げられる

    • Relative clauses(関係詞節)

      • who / which / where / whose / that を使う

  • Reducing errors

    • 冠詞(a / an / the)

    • 前置詞

4.7: Vocabulary for common topics