IELTS Speaking Success

概要

かかった時間

  • xxx 時間

進め方

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感想

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読書メモ

1: Introduction

  • speaking のテストは 11-14 分、3 つのパートに分かれている

  • Part 1: Short question and answers about familiar topics

    • 4-5 分で自分のことや自分の国のことについて聞かれる

    • 最大で 3 つのトピックがあり、それぞれ最大で 4 問の質問がある

    • The first topic will be about whether you work or study, the place you are living in, or the place you are from.

    • 他の 2 つのトピックは、趣味、休日、スポーツ、娯楽について聞かれる

  • Part2: Long Turn

    • トピックが書かれたカードが渡され、1 分で準備し、1-2 分で答える

      • 可能であれば 2 分話すようにする

    • トピックは person, place, object, activity, or experience について述べている

    • サブトピックもあり、解答の計画を立てる上で助けになる

    • 試験官はパートの終わりに 1 つか 2 つの質問をするので、簡潔に答える

  • Part3: Discussion

    • part2 のトピックを使って 4-5 分質問される

    • Question typically ask you to compare, analyze, speculate, or give your opinion on the given topic.

    • 能力を測るために、試験官はつっこんで質問してくる

1.1: Grading

  • Fluency and coherence

    • Speaking speed

      • すべてを急いで話す必要はないが、部分的に早めに話して、良いスピードで話せることを示すと良い

    • Hesitations

      • 文の途中で止まることを避けたほうが良い

      • 途中より、最初で止まって考えたほうが良い

    • Transitions and Linking phrases

      • どのような方向で話しているのか示すように接続語を使う(in addition / however / consequently など)

      • 同じフレーズを過度に繰り返さず、幅広い言葉を使うと良い

  • Pronunciation

    • Specific sounds

      • th / w / v / r / l / 長母音に気をつける

    • Chunking

      • 意味が伝わりやすくなるようにグループを区切って話す

      • ネイティブスピーカーのやり方を真似すると良い

    • Stress of syllables and word and sentences

      • 各単語に正しくアクセントを置く

      • 文のレベルでも強調する

    • Intonation

      • 抑揚をつける

  • Vocabulary

    • Errors with word choices

      • 自信のない言葉は使わない

      • ただ、できるだけレベルの高い表現を使って、試験官に能力を示すことも大切

    • Errors with word forms

      • 品詞のミスに気をつける

    • Lack of talent

      • いくつかの表現を集中して学ぶと、試験で効果的に使えるかも

  • Grammar

    • Use complex sentences

      • 評価を高めるために幅広い表現を使う

      • 表現を絞って、深く学習すると良い

    • Tenses(時制)

      • どの時制を使うべきか考えながら話す

    • Word order

      • 語順に注意

    • Prepositions and Articles(前置詞と冠詞)

1.2: Preparing for your test

  • 1: Understanding how the speaking test is graded

  • 2: Preparing for and practicing common question that are asked

  • 3: Learning ways of structuring your answers to extend your answers and to improve your coherence

  • 4: Learning to paraphrase, which is when you use a phrase to explain a word you can't think of

  • 5: Improving your pronunciation, and ensuring you can make all sounds correctly and also getting natural stress, intonation, and connected speech

  • 6: Improving spoken grammar by correcting any frequent errors, and learning to use a couple of complex sentence structures such as conditional phrases or relative pronouns

  • 7: Broadening your vocabulary especially by building common phrases that can be used for a variety of responses, such as connectives and linking words and idiomatic language

2: General Strategies

  • このセクションでは 3 パートのすべてで使える strategies について説明する

  • 短すぎる答えだと、試験官は英語力を評価できず、低いスコアになってしまう

  • Extend your answers

    • 例題: What kind of food do you like? に答えるとする

    • 1: Divide into 2 or 3 parts

      • 例えば以下のように解答する

      • Well, there are three kinds of food that I'm really keen on. The one I like best is Italian food because I am a big fan of pasta. I also really like to eat Korean food as it's very healthy and flavorsome. I'm also kind of partial to Mexican food because it is so hot and spicy.

    • 2: General to specific

      • general -> specific -> example の順に書いていく

      • 例えば以下のように解答する

      • Well, I'd have to say that I'm a big fan of seafood. In particular, I really like to eat Japanese seafood because it's always so fresh. For instance, sashimi is delicious because the raw fish is so flavorsome.

    • 3: Depends - describing different situations

      • 異なる状況に対して、異なる理由を説明する

      • 例えば以下のように解答する

      • I think it depends really. If I'm working I prefer to get something like fast food such as McDonalds because I only have a short break. But, if I'm out with friends I would rather have something more exotic such as Thai food or Indian food.

  • Speak at variable speed rate

    • fluency を示すために、良いスピードで読む必要があるが、すべてそのスピードで読む必要はない

    • Slow down when you ...

      • 1: reach a difficult area or are unsure of what you will say

      • 2: want to emphasize something

      • 3: are using high level language to make the examiner notice it

    • Speed-up when you ...

      • 1: are comfortable with the topic and what you are saying

      • 2: are giving less important information

    • use redundant language

      • oh / well / actually などの言葉はネイティブスピーカーのほうが、ノンネイティブの人より多く使っている。これらを多少使ったほうがよい

    • Use punctuation

      • 短い pause は新しい節に入ったことを示し、長い pause は新しいアイデアやトピックに入ったことを示す

  • Use lots of adjectives and adverbs

    • 形容詞と福祉を使うことで、表現がより正確になり、スコアが上がる

  • Listen carefully for key words in the questions

  • Entering the test room

    • あなたのパスポートを試験官がチェックするまでは試験は始まらない

    • 緊張は隠し、自信と穏やかさを見せたほうがいい

    • テストが始まる前に試験官は日付や時間などを記載するので、その間は静かにしている

      • しかし、その間に試験官のアクセントや発音に慣れておく

    • What is your full name? / Where are you from? / Can I see your identification please? といった質問をされるので、ここは短く答えれば良い

    • その後 "Now, I would like to ask you a few questions about yourself" といったことを言われ、そこから質問が始まる

3: Part 1 - Questions on Familiar Topics

  • 4-5 分で行われる

  • Requirement

    • 最大で 3 つのトピックがあり、それぞれ最大で 4 問の質問がある

      • The first topic will be about whether you work or study, the place you are living in, or the place you are from.

      • 他の 2 つのトピックは、趣味、休日、スポーツ、娯楽について聞かれる

    • 試験官に 1 度だけ問題の反復を頼むことが可能

    • 各単語について意味を質問することもできるが、文全体を rephrase してもらうことはできない

  • Suggestions

    • yes / no だけでなく、full response を行う

    • 2 - 4 sentences で各質問に答える

    • アイデアや実際の意見ではなく、言語に focus する

  • Procedure

    • 1: まず ID をチェックされ、そこから part1 のテストが始まる

    • 2: 試験官が "Now, I am going to ask you a few general questions" と言う

    • 3: 試験官は異なるトピックについて 3 つか 4 つの質問を行う。"Now, let's talk about where you live" のように、試験官はトピックの紹介を行う

    • 4: トピックをベースに試験官は 3 つか 4 つの質問を行う。以下が例

      • Do you live in a house or an apartment?

      • Which room do you like the most in your home?

      • In the future, what sort of home would you like to live in?

    • 5: 3 つか 4 つの質問を行った後、試験官は "Now let's talk about your hobbies and interests" などと言って、次のトピックに進む

    • 6: 3 つのトピックについて質疑が終わったら、試験官は part1 のテストを終え、part2 に進む

      • もし、あなたの答えが長かった場合は、トピックが 2 つだけになることもある

3.1: Strategies

  • 1: Expansion

    • 質問に対して、展開した答えを述べたほうが良い

    • そうすることで、あなたが質問をよく理解していることと、言語能力の高さを示せる

    • 質問例: Do you like riding bicycles?

      • 悪い答え: Yes

      • より良い答え: Yes, because it's fun, good for health, and doesn't cost a lot.

      • 優れた答え

        • Well, I like to ride bikes for a few reasons. The main reason I like to cycle is that I think it is really fun and it is a good way to go sightseeing. I'd also like to point-out that riding a bike is very good for my health because it can help me to lose weight. I would also like to add that recently I haven't been riding my bike much, as I am quite busy at work.

    • 答えを展開するために利用できるやり方

      • 1: Dividing your response into 2 or 3 parts

      • 2: Explaining something from general terms to specific and maybe giving and example

      • 3: Depends - describing different situations

      • 4: Concession - making a main argument and then giving a concession to it

      • 5: Avoidance - not directly answering the question at first and then answering it

  • 2: Show language

    • 質問例: What colors do you like?

      • 悪い答え: I like and green and blue.

      • より良い答え: My favorite colors are light green and navy blue.

        • より正確に表現することで、語彙の評価を上げられる

      • 優れた答え

        • Well, My favorite color is magenta, I guess that's because I'm really into bright and bold colors. I also like turquoise, I find that a very relaxing peaceful color that reminds me of the ocean.

        • あまり一般的でない色を答えることで、語彙を示せる

        • "I'm really into" のような慣用的な表現も、表現力を示せる

  • 3: Buy time to think

    • 特定のやり方を繰り返し使うべきではない

    • Repeat the question

      • "Oh, so you're asking about my favorite color." のように繰り返すことで考える時間を作る

    • Ask the examiner to repeat the question

      • 試験官は 1 度だけ、問題を復唱できる

      • 復唱を 1 度行ってもらってもスコアは下がらないが、何度も行ってしまうとスコアを下げる

      • "I'm sorry I didn't quite catch that ... could you please repeat the question."

    • 答え始めに使える表現

      • Well, that's a really interesting question

      • Oh I'm not too sure about that ... Let me think for a minute ... Oh yes it is ...

      • With regards to your question, I guess I would have to say that ...

  • 4: If you don't understand the question

    • わからない単語については試験官に説明をお願いできる。しかし質問全体について rephrase をお願いすることはできない(part3 を除く)

    • 質問がわからなかった場合、黙ってしまうのが一番良くない

    • 聞き取れたキーワードから、質問に対する答えを返すようにする

3.2: Types of Questions

1: Description Questions

  • Strategy: divide your response into 2 or 3 parts

  • Structure: point 1 + point 2 + point 3

例題
Tell me something about your hometown?
解答例
**Well**, I come from Taipei and I have lived here all my life. **I'd like to begin by saying that** it's the capital of Taiwan and also the cultural center. **On top of that I can also add that** it's very crowded, maybe even one of most congested cities in Asia I guess. The roads are also so jammed that even the locals have problems finding their way around! **Finally, I'd also like to mention** that it offers splendid examples of contemporary architecture. Actually some of the most renowned landmarks are in the middle of Taipei, such as Taipei 101, the second tallest building in the world.
  • Useful Language

    • Starting-off(redundant language)

      • ok / then / actually / alright / well / you know

    • Point 1

      • I'd like to begin by saying ...

      • The first thing I'd like to mention is ...

      • The main thing you need to know is ...

    • Point 2

      • On top of that I can also add that ...

      • Another interesting point ...

      • Not only that, but xxx is also exceedingly ...

    • Point 3

      • Finally, I'd also like to mention ...

      • And, I shouldn't forget to mention that ...

      • I guess I could also say that (it's) sort of ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What sort of work do you do?

    • What does your house look like?

    • What does your neighborhood look like?

    • What does your city/town look like?

    • What sort of clothes do you like to wear?

    • Describe a city you would like to visit?

    • Describe a country you would like to visit?

    • Describe a park you have visited?

2: "Types of" Questions

  • Strategy: divide your response into 2 or 3 parts

  • Structure: general statement + type 1 + type 2

例題
Tell me about the different types of public transportation in your city.
解答例
**Well, you know there's quite a mixed variety of** public transportation in my city. **I think the most common one** is buses because they seem to go everywhere. **In addition**, the trains **are also extremely popular** for those people who are lucky enough to live near a train station.
  • Useful Language

    • Rephrasing types

      • kinds / sorts / variety / range of / array

    • Useful phrases to start [General statement]

      • There's quite a mixed variety of ...

      • There's a fairly wide range of ...

      • There's quite a diverse mixture of ...

    • Type 1

      • I think the most common one is ...

      • The main one is ...

      • The first one that comes to mind is ...

    • Type 2

      • In addition, X ... is also extremely popular

      • Another kind is ...

      • Not only that, but X ... is also exceedingly ...

    • Type 3 (if needed)

      • And I shouldn't forget to mention that ...

      • I guess I could also say that ...

      • Finally, I'd also like to mention ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What kinds of restaurants are popular in your country?

    • What types of shops can be found in your local area?

    • What types of things do people collect in your country?

    • How do you spend your free time?

    • How do people spend their free time in your country?

    • What sorts of TV programs do you watch?

    • What sorts of TV programs are popular in your country?

    • What sort of things do people collect in your country?

3: Liking

  • Strategy: general to specific

  • Structure: general statement + more precise statement + reason

例題
What kind of animals do you like?
解答例
**Well, in general I would say I'm pretty fond of** small animals. **In particular, I'm really keen on** cats and dogs; **and, I guess this is because** we often kept them when I was growing up, and they were good companions for me.
  • Rephrasing "liking"

    • I'm pretty fond of ...

    • I'm really keen on ...

    • I'm a big fan of ...

    • I'm extremely passionate about ...

  • Genreral statement

    • Well, in general I would say ...

    • Generally speaking ...

    • Overall, I think that ...

  • More precise statement

    • In particular, ...

    • Specifically, ...

    • To be more precise ...

  • Reason

    • And I guess this is probably because ...

    • I think this is due to the fact that ...

    • The reason for this is because ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What do you like about your hometown?

    • What do you like about your job/studies?

    • What sort of music do you like?

    • What sorts of books do you like reading?

    • What type of movies do you like?

    • Where do you like to shop?

    • What types of food do you like?

    • What types of free time activities do you like?

4: Disliking

  • Strategy: general to specific

  • Structure: general statement + more precise statement + reason

例題
Is there anything you don't like about your hometown?
解答例
**Generally speaking ... I'd have to say** that I'm not really fond of the weather. **To be more specific,** I really can't stand the summer months. **I think this is due to the fact that** it is always humid, so it makes me feel quite hot and sweaty!
  • Rephrasing "disliking"

    • I really can't stand ...

    • I'm not really fond of ...

    • I'm not much of a fan of ...

    • ... simply gets on my nerves.

  • Genreral statement

    • Well, in general I would say ...

    • Generally speaking ...

    • Overall, I think that ...

  • More precise statement

    • Specifically, ...

    • To be more specific ...

    • To be more precise ...

  • Reason

    • And I guess this is probably because ...

    • I think this is due to the fact that ...

    • The reason for this is because ...

  • 他の質問例

    • Is there anything you don't like about your hometown?

    • Is there anything you don't like about job/studies?

    • Is there any food you don't like?

    • Are there any clothes that you don't like?

    • Are there any colors that you don't like?

    • What type of weather do you dislike?

    • What type of noises do you dislike?

    • What type of movies do you dislike?

5: Habits

  • Strategy: depends

  • Structure: depends + if preference 1 + if preference 2

例題
What do you usually do at the weekend?
解答例
**Well, it is contingent upon** how I feel.
**If I'm** exhausted after working all week **I prefer to** do something relaxing like chilling out on the sofa with a good book.
**But, if** I energetic **I would rather** do something more exciting like go hiking or camping.
  • Depends

    • Well, it is contingent upon ...

    • I think it depends really.

    • Well, to be honest, I would have to say that it really depends.

  • Preference 1

    • If I'm ... I prefer to ...

    • Usually, I prefer ...

    • Sometimes, I prefer to ...

  • Preference 2

    • But, if I ... I would rather ...

    • Although, sometimes I would rather ...

    • However, If I have ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What do you usually do on the Internet?

    • What do you usually study?

    • What do you like to do for holidays?

    • When do you go shopping?

    • What do you do to relax?

    • How much sleep do you usually get?

    • How do you celebrate festivals in your country?

    • How much TV do you watch?

6: Yes/No questions

  • Strategy: depends

  • Structure: depends + preference 1 + preference 2

例題
Do you eat healthy food?
解答例
Well, to be honest, I would have to say that it really depends. Usually I prefer to eat something quick and convenient such as instant noodles because I am very busy with my studies. Although, sometimes I would rather spend a little more time and cook something healthier such as a rice and veggies.
  • Depends

    • Well, it is contingent upon ...

    • I think it depends really.

    • Well, to be honest, I would have to say that it really depends.

  • Preference 1

    • If I'm ... I prefer to ...

    • Usually, I prefer ...

    • Sometimes, I prefer to ...

  • Preference 2

    • But, if I ... I would rather ...

    • Although, sometimes I would rather ...

    • However, If I have ...

  • 他の質問例

    • Do you like the weather in your country?

    • Do you enjoy eating food from other countries?

    • Do you enjoy your work/studies?

    • Are there enough festivals in your country?

    • Do you enjoy going shopping?

    • Do you like to get up early?

    • Do you play or watch any sports?

    • Are you planning any vacations?

7: "WH" Questions

  • Strategy: concession

  • Structure: main point + concession

例題
What sort of restaurants do you usually eat at?
解答例
Well, recently I'd have to say that I have been enjoying eating steak and each time I feel like a steak I go to Outback Steak House, because the steaks there are huge. **Although, I suppose it could be argued that** it may not be all that healthy to eat so much red meat, as I've heard it can lead to high levels of cholesterol.
  • Concession

    • Although, I suppose it could be argued that ...

    • However, I'm quite aware that ...

    • Nevertheless, it is worth remembering that ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What do you do at the weekend?

    • When do you usually read?

    • Where do you usually go for holidays?

    • Which do you prefer, reading a book or watching TV?

    • Who do you spend your evenings with?

    • When do you usually sleep?

    • Why do you work/study there?

    • How often do you play or watch sports?

8: When you were a child

  • Strategy: concession

  • Structure: main point + concession

例題
What games did you enjoy playing when you were a child?
解答例
Well, I was always very keen on playing video games. I spent almost all my free time playing them. **However, I'm quite aware that ...** . It wasn't the healthiest way to spend my childhood and perhaps it's contributed to my myopia.
  • Concession

    • Although, I suppose it could be argued that ...

    • However, I'm quite aware that ...

    • Nevertheless, it is worth remembering that ...

  • 他の質問例

    • What colors did you like when you were a child?

    • Did you like to wear bright clothing when you were a child?

    • Did you like any sports when you were a child?

    • What type of food did you like when you were a child?

    • Did you have a lot of friends when you were a child?

    • What type of indoor activities did you do when you were a child?

9: In the future

  • Strategy: avoidance

  • Structure: avoiding phrase + answer to the question

例題
Where would you like to go for your next vacation?
解答例
**Well, to be honest, I don't really have** a clear plan **but I guess that I will probably** go overseas to some exotic location like Nepal because I'm really into hiking and exploring new areas.
  • Avoiding phrase

    • Well, to be honest, I don't really have ...

    • Actually, I'm not really sure about that.

    • Oh, I've never really thought about that.

  • answer to the question

    • ... but I guess that I will probably ...

    • ... but I guess that if I had to choose one, then I'd ...

    • ... perhaps the end result will be that

  • 他の質問例

    • Would you like to learn a new language in the future?

    • In the future, what sort of home would you like to live in?

    • In the future, do you think people will use mobile phones more than now?

    • In the future, do you think people will be healthier or less healthy than now?

    • Do you think your hometown will change much in the future?

    • Do you think you will have more free time in the future?

10: Comparing

  • Strategy: avoidance

  • Structure: avoiding phrase + answer to the question

例題
Do you prefer to read a book or watch TV?
解答例
**Oh, I like them both so it's hard to choose only one. But I guess that if I had to choose one, then I would rather** read a novel **and the main reason for this is because I slightly prefer** the storylines of novels to TV.
  • Avoiding phrase

    • Oh, I like them both, so it's hard to choose only one.

    • Well, to be honest, I don't really have ...

    • Actually, I'm not really sure about that.

    • Oh, I've never really thought about that.

  • answer to the question

    • ... but I guess that I will probably ...

    • ... but I guess that if I had to choose one, then I'd ...

    • ... perhaps the end result will be that

  • Comparatives

    • I slightly prefer ...

    • I'd much rather ...

    • I enjoy X much more than Y

  • 他の質問例

    • Do you prefer studying in the morning or in the evening?

    • Do you prefer taking photos with your phone or with a camera?

    • Would you rather live in a place with hot weather or cold weather?

    • Do you like to take lots of short holidays or one long holiday?

    • Do you prefer to write by hand or using a computer?

    • Do you prefer to send text messages or to call someone?